Most of us would have doubts as to whether these two expressions mean the same or not.
The interesting thing is that they both originate in other cultures and traditions: Curriculum Vitae is obviously a Latin expression and Resume is obviously a French word.
It was today, at Linkedin, following a discussion on the topic (18.1.2015, LinkEds & writers, CV vs. résumé), that we got our main inspiration for this note.
As you can see on Curriculum Vitae, the Latin expression originally meant course of life.
It is then, basically, the entire history of our life in terms of whatever could be interesting the employer: courses, awards, positions, and etc.
Resume, on the other hand, is found on Resume, and means back take.
We then do not expect to see the entire life of the person covered when they hand in a resume: It is just an idea about their past experiences.
On the discussion we were following, most of the people seemed to think that both terms mean the same. Two of them specialized in the job market and said that the expressions are equivalent, in terms of usage, in both the UK and Australia.
One person said that one expects to see only the last ten years of the life of a person in a resume. 10 years, for instance, corroborates that.
We are perhaps free to decide, but ten years sounds reasonable to the vast majority of the people.